Post-GRE Prepping, Post Haste

I did not give myself a large enough window for the admissions process. Nuts. And bolts. I’m screwed. Actually, it’s not that dire. Two of the schools don’t require all the application materials until mid-January. One requires everything by Dec. 10th. It’s alright. I am calm. I am capable. I am concerned about losing my sanity.

Enough about my ill-scheduled application attempts. I want to discuss some important, but difficult topics. After all, I need a twenty page example of critical writing, and that means I need to refresh a topic I covered during undergrad. I want to synthesize a few topics to show I have a broad background of interests/studies and information to draw from. I did a paper on colonial women writers, one or two on Native American literature, and a few on international/global literary topics (i.e. non-Western writers). I’m quite interested in topics of ethnic divides and immigration, refugees and cultural identity. I’m about to dive into the long literary gulf between Manifest Destiny and modern Israel/Palestine.

God help me.

I want to be fair, and objective, but it’s hard because the issues certainly don’t play by the rules. What I’m going to attempt is a critical analysis of literature created by displaced peoples. Sometimes groups that have experienced hardship and oppression create poignant writings and art. These writings are not a Band-aid for the hurt, but an expression of it, a voice for those without a voice.

This will be a comparative study, with an examination of the history of Native American relations and treatment since European settlers arrived, and what it looks like now after all this time. Then I will take a look at the more recent and ongoing issues between Israel and Palestine. The lens I plan to use to examine these places and issues is that of fiction and poetry, but there will be a lot of historical and critical research supplementing my primary texts and argument.

P. S. My GRE scores were great for Verbal Reasoning, abysmal for Quantitative Reasoning, and meh for Analytical Writing. That does not bode well. At least I nailed one section.

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The Great Library Day

I’m not one to get lost in research for days or months. I’m a pantser (as they call it over in NaNo land) by nature, although I’m trying to change my ways. The planners, when they are able to balance prep and writing, tend to be more productive. A better organizational system might prove helpful for my writing projects. The greatest tool I have so far is my library card. My second greatest is a day planner. As I push to finish the rewrite on my current novel before NaNoWriMo begins, I’ve found I need to become more diligent in the use of both.

Saturday, I went to the library for a couple of books on medieval history and life. I found two good ones, fairly recently published narratives with a scholarly bent. I like historical books that read more like a story than scholarly research. I’ve already read a short history of the Bubonic Plague in Europe, and a short account of the rise and reign of Charlemagne, HRE and Frankish king. I also read a sweeping and detailed analysis of the Battle of Hastings, which mostly covered the century or so leading up to the events of 1066 and all the circumstances that allowed a successful Norman invasion of England to occur. Fascination stuff right there. I’d go into it but this isn’t a bedtime stories blog.

The two books I got are:

A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance: Portrait of an Age, by William Manchester, and

Barbarians to Angels: the Dark Ages Reconsidered, by Peter S. Wells.

The first book was originally published in 1992. The ‘more info’ tab on the library site describes this work as “the preeminent popular history of civilization’s rebirth after the Dark Ages”. That’s it. The second–published in 2008 by a professor of archaeology–attempts to look at the Dark Ages through the lens of newly unearthed archaeological records. The written record is spare, but the author contends a rich culture is evident by the artifacts left behind. Basically, I have a book from the perspective of the long held tradition of the Middle Ages as a dark time intellectually and economically, and another book that throws the old standard out in order to show–with new evidence–that the Middle Ages had its own bright spots, and the Renaissance didn’t spring randomly from the morass of medieval ignorance.

I haven’s finished either one yet. I’m not reviewing the merits of the books today. Rather, I’m making a point about libraries and research methods. Again, I’m a pantser, which I’ve recently heard described as a ‘discovery writer’. That sounds more diginified, but it’s the same thing. My book has come together in fits and starts and lacks the cohesiveness of great stories I’ve read. I have nuanced characters and not-terrible dialogue, and that’s a good start. The world they inhabit, however, looks much like the decoy town in Blazing Saddles. If a reader took a moment to check around back, or test the sturdiness of a building with a good push, the whole illusion would crumble. My characters are running around through a bunch of back lot set pieces, populated by too few extras. I’m doing my research after writing, to bolster up what I have so far, to give my world the life and color it now lacks.

I don’t know what the reality of living in non-technological world is like. This little foray into the land of research should help. I’m exploring my options, and formulation questions to answer.

How does trade work, both internally and internationally? What is the town structure? Are there lords, vassals, and serfs, or kings, landholding nobles, and tenant farmers? How’s the currency doing? What’s the gross domestic product, and is it affected by weather and climate? Any recent population decimators, like war or disease/plague? How often is there intercultural exchange of ideas?

This will all add texture and depth to my world, and change how the characters interact with it. External forces may throw wrenches in their internal motivations, creating a richer, more real story. That’s my hope anyway.

October will bring *daily* prep updates for NaNoWriMo. Also some scary stuff. The haunted house near me opens this weekend! 

Applied Magicks

I’ll be honest. I planned an entirely different post for yesterday, but I scrapped it. It was boring, rambling, and neither educational nor useful. That’s alright. We writers have to write garbage sometimes to get to the good stuff. It’s a process of turning over stones to find treasure. All we go out with are two hands and a bit of time, and the promise of reward if we work hard enough and have a little luck.

Speaking of scrapping ideas and garbage first drafts, I’ve finally come to the crux of my book. The rewriting is an interesting challenge for me. Currently I’m running constant thought experiments in the back of my mind, trying to figure out the foundational principles of my magic system. I want it to be unique, organic to the world in which it exists, and have realistic limitations. It’s hard to check those boxes and end up with something satisfying .

I don’t want vague wizardry, or power objects (rings are for proposals), or wands, or ultra-powerful time-and-space bending portals, no academic institutions devoted to the study of spell casting, no potions, and no incantations. What does that leave me? Not much. I do want a dirt-under-the-fingernails kind of magic, and one that costs a great deal to use. I want one that the users think twice about before exercising their powers. I want magic that is rare but not unknown. I want the magic to have a dual nature, a benefit and a downside, a give and take.

Here’s what I have so far. My magic system should be a known aspect of life, but it is not a trusted skill nor are all magic users highly regarded. It’s origins should be tied to the earth, for example, certain powers are only attainable at certain locations. Surviving the actual transference of power from one of these “wells” is an iffy matter, hence only a few people willingly try. The potency of the magic depends directly on the energy of the user. Energy can pass from person to person when facilitated by a magic user. In the hands of an ethical user, this can be a great help. An unethical user would be a terror. The way magic is used and viewed varies slightly from urban to rural arenas and varies greatly from culture to culture. One of the cultures has a genetically inherited magic system in the form of seers. The gift passes from mother to daughter and the practice is highly formulaic and ceremonial. It is also highly respected when real, but subject to the discrediting effects of charlatans.

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I really need to decide how many people have magical abilities, what their natures are, and how they relate to the larger culture around them. Anyways, this has been rambling as well, but I work through plot problems in this way a lot. I hope it helps you, too!

What’s New, What’s Coming 

Ladies and gentlemen, I have signed up for the GRE General Test. I take it in less than a month.

Why? you ask.

I want to go to grad school. That’s the simple answer. The more complex answer stems from a combination of factors. Here they are in handy list format:

1. I need a change.

2. I’ve been at the same job for eight years and I’m borderline ready to walk out.

3. I can’t find a better job with my current schooling and experience.

4. At least not in this area.

5. My transcript is 80% flaming garbage and 20% soggy toast. I need to put up spectacular scores to show I am ready for the long, hard grind of a master’s program.

6. I’ll have been out of academia for six years by the time I get in again.

7. Mostly, to prove to myself I can do this. And I will!

The end game is to get my Master’s in English Literature. By some miracle I already acquired my Bachelor of Arts in the same. My undergraduate career was less than stellar, but I’ve always had a love of learning. I want to put that love to good use. I also need structure and to build good habits when it comes to scheduling.

I put editing my novel on semi-hiatus to get ready for the test. I needed a break. My rewriting efforts were suffering over the last month as I approached this decision. I intend to finish the project soon, but the GRE and grad school application take precedence now. Which leads me to another issue, one at the crux of a writing career and the pursuit of a degree. The latter does not necessarily aid the former. One is not a requirement of the other. 

There’s no bridgekeeper asking for your CV and a list of three references before letting you cross into the land of authorship. (Honestly, I wish it were that easy.) It’s more of a Sisyphean task. You hit the high of completing an entire first draft of a manuscript only to look at it a week later (or a month, or six months) to find the shine worn off. You fall back down into the pit is self-doubt and uncertainty. 

Personally, I’m only on my second trip up the hill. I’m doing my first round of rewrites on my first novel. Thanks to The Internet, though, I have no illusions about the amount of work still ahead of me. There are still quite a few highs and lows. I have yet to scale critique partners, querying agents (and piles of form rejections!), edit letters, beta readers, and a whole host of other various challenges that come with the territory of transitioning from writer caterpillar to published author butterfly. 

And I know there’s no guarantee here. I could hit all the marks and have a book ready to hit shelves, and GRRM’s publisher might release his long-awaited book the same week. I could be a butterfly crushed under the wheel of fate.

But I’ll keep persisting, I’ll keep putting pen to page and writing because that’s what writers do. 

And the master’s degree? That’s an entirely separate pursuit. A master’s degree and a writing career can exist in a kind of symbiosis, one boosting the other. The degree is specifically to increase my chances of finding a job in a field I’m passionate about. 

Incidentally, another obstacle to being a writer is making enough money to be a full time writer. Many published authors don’t, and they hold down day jobs, or part time gigs, or evening and weekend shifts. Sometimes it’s to supplement income, sometimes it’s to pay the mortgage and keep the lights on. Those who divide time between the grind and the dream must be diligent in alloting time to write and then using it to that end and efficiently. I struggle desperately in that category. 

So, what do I hope to accomplish with a master’s degree in English Literature? I want a job in something closer to my interests. Perhaps I’ll teach in the future. I definitely want to make a career of a writing. I want to get published, and be a professional author with at least fifty percent of my income drawn from book sales. Lofty goal, I know. Realistically I’m aware this may never happen, but I’m certainly improving my chances with every word I write. 

A writer writes, by definition. I intend to keep doing so. But I also want to get a little more education in, and this time around I plan to actually pay attention. I plan to sharpen my writing skills by analyzing the greats that have gone before. I plan to build my connections so that I have a community of other writers and readers around me. Most of all, I plan to have fun and I plan to learn a lot. 

Coming up is my journey to  the GREs, and grad school and a master’s program, if all goes well. Wish me luck! 

I want to get back in the habit of posting regularly. This is the start. Future posts: National Novel Writing Month is coming up in November. Even sooner, October is just around the corner. Halloween is the most fantastical holiday, and the season puts me in the mood for horror. I’ll have some related material posting then. 

Fantasy World Building 101: A Course in Making It Up As You Go

Part 1: Over the River and Through the Woods

Show of hands—who’s seen a good example of a topographical map? A few of you? Okay, that’s better than none. Now, who’s seen a map in the first pages of a fantasy novel? Everyone? Good. Those of you who’ve seen both know what I’m up to here *cough* Tolkien’s square mountain ranges *cough*. What’s up with the extreme geological features?

All the mountain ranges resemble the Alps. The forests are all lowland, old growth, sprawling masses of trees. The farmland tends to the flatness of the Midwest, if there’s any at all. Deserts are vast, dune-covered affairs of blinding sun and wicked heat. There’s nothing inherently wrong with these landscapes. They’re dramatic, challenging, easily recognizable, but they’re overused. And sometimes they simply don’t make sense. You aren’t going to have a generally stable landmass with an active volcano camped out in the middle, especially if it’s the only volcano around. Volcanoes tend to crop up at the edges of tectonic plates. Ditto for mountains. Continents drift over time. Newer mountain ranges are taller and sharper, old ranges are worn down and smoothed around the edges. Waterways flow to larger waterways, flow to lakes, seas, and oceans.

I recommend making Google Earth your friend. I also utilize Google Maps in Terrain mode. This gives me a clear idea of land formations without all the extra ‘noise’ (vegetation, roads, buildings) that occurs in a satellite image. Familiarize yourself with your region’s terrain and go out from there to wholly unfamiliar environments. Research unique geological features. What causes them? How do they affect the landscape? I live in a zone known for its glacial moraines. It’s the where the southernmost edge of the glaciers reached in North America during the last ice age. The glaciers scarred the land as they formed, leaving lakes and marshes. They left plenty of debris behind when receding, some of which piled up to form moraines. I live near a moraine valley, a glacial gorge, and an esker. Eskers are funny things, long, narrow hills consisting of whatever gravelly stone the glaciers pushed around, covered in a thin layer of dirt and vegetation. Northern England has drumlins, as does the upper Midwest, a different kind of glacial leaving due to the same recession process.

Geology is fascinating, and the little details of it can speak volumes about the world being presented in a work of fiction. Specifically, fantasy can benefit from strong world building as the world of the story tends to be completely made up, or turned on its head, or otherwise manipulated. The little details can make the world seem real. Find out about tectonic plates, vulcanism, groundwater aquifers, river watersheds. These are the things that shape a landscape, whole regions of space marked by the geologic forces that move in and through them. The shape of the land can also influence a host of other factors in your story. A mountain range can signal a natural border between nations. Or a sea, or a marsh, or any impassable feature, or ‘waste’ land can do the same. Are there canyons? Is the place prone to earthquakes or flooding? Is it high desert or near the ocean? Is there a rich supply of precious metals? Gemstones? Are there granite quarries or limestone?

Speaking of natural resources, climate and weather can have an impact on that just as much as geology. Learning a bit about how the two interact to form and shape distinct regions of our earth can inform the creation of a fictional world. How do the seasons cycle? Is there wetland or rainforest? Some places are better for grain crops while others support fruit orchards. A warm, wet environment can foster exotic trees used for specialty hardwood. A sea bound society might provide fish to the market.

This actually leads into the topic I’ll cover next week, namely, the economic patterns of society and how that is an essential part of the world building process.

And yeah, sometimes drawing a map helps wrap your head around the place you’ve created.

Happy world building!

Visions of the Future, Ghosts of the Past

The revisions are coming along slowly, as revisions tend to do. If you haven’t guessed already, my novel is fantasy, and I’ve always had a spot in my heart for that genre. Fantasy has been my gateway to a host of other wonderful, weird genres. I’ve come to appreciate science fiction, horror, strange future dystopias (YA and otherwise), urban fantasy, magical realism, and uncategorized experiments that seem to float between genres. Some are meta-fictions, reflecting our world back to us with ‘what if’ scenarios. Others are tightly focused on one subject, deeply exploring the subject matter with little reference to anything outside its own universe. Some stories are fun, irreverent romps; others are serious examinations of the human condition. Many of these stories contain more significant material than they’re given credit for.

As if confirming this point, I read just yesterday that George Orwell’s famous novel about a future surveillance state, 1984, was/is at the top of Amazon’s sales list right now. People are reading the proverbial tea leaves and they’re seeing grim things. It’s natural for the bookish among them to seek answers in the pages of such a book. Though fiction, it is a dire warning of what can happen if the government gets too much control over the population it’s supposed to serve, if propaganda becomes the new gospel, if service to the state is the highest purpose in life.

Orwell’s prediction was off by a few decades, but very on point with the scenarios. And it’s scary. But that’s the power of a good story.

How does an author come up with something so prescient, or moving, or frighteningly possible, when they trade in the realm of fiction?

Simple.

Ask: What if?

Einstein spent time on thought experiments when he came upon a physics problem he wanted to understand better. He would run the scenarios in his mind, finding what upheld the observable natural laws and what fell short. I think authors operate much the same way. They see the world, make observations about it, and then ask ‘what if’.

What if aliens landed in major cities all over the world tomorrow and no one knew they were coming?

What if a girl had strange powers in a world of strange events, and she stumbled on a secret at the very center of that world?

What if a boy was witness to a terrible act of violence, which triggered something in his personality he didn’t know was there?

I wrote those three questions with specific books in mind, but I’m sure each one would cover hundreds of stories. Many authors might have the same concerns on their minds—the same ‘what ifs’—but each brings their unique voice and experiences and particular historical moment or interests to the narrative as they begin writing. The readers get their pick of perspectives on any given topic.

This is great, but how do dragons or monsters or aliens help us see our world more clearly?

Let’s start with the idea of power. Power can be good. In the simplest of examples, electrical power can run a household. Lights turn on with a switch, outlets provide access to power for innumerable tools and devices. But if something goes wrong, if there’s a short circuit or a bad connection, an electrical fire can start or a painful shock can be inflicted. Electrical power can be used to kill. It’s a good thing we take for granted, but within it, due to abuse or neglect, there is the potential for great harm.

In fiction, power harbors the same duality, though it may manifest in different ways. There are so many cautionary tales out there that center on the use or misuse of power. Yet the good ones read like an adventure and the theme might not be so obvious. Sometimes it looks like the message is ‘good will always triumph over evil,’ when the real purpose is to show how power is such a double-edged sword.

There’s a famous line early in the 2002 film, Spider-Man, where Uncle Ben tells Peter Parker, “With great power comes great responsibility.” It’s a cautionary statement, meant to tell Peter there’s danger in having too much power, and any power he has must be used wisely—and Uncle Ben doesn’t even know he’s Spider-Man. That phrase rings through the rest of the film, and it rings true. We see Peter use his alter ego for good. His powers help him put the world to right. Norman Osborn, however, uses his new powers for evil, in the guise of the Green Goblin.

I don’t think that his new powers are the whole reason he turns to evil, though. He was already corrupted by the power of wealth and position. The extra powers brought by experimental mutation only made it easier to abuse his position or power and block any guilty conscience. It’s almost like a Jekyll and Hyde split, where the hubris of Dr. Jekyll releases the full evil potential of Mr. Hyde.

There you have it. A superhero movie can be a lesson on the dangers of hubris and the failure of people with power to use it wisely. It’s a fun action movie with a little bit of romance and a lot of special effects, but it also teaches something valuable, if you look closely.

Writers know that words are power, too. So, figure out how to use your story, not just to tell a compelling story with well-written characters (although that’s important), but as a force for good.

What’s important to you? What do you see in the world that’s alarming?

You don’t have to write overtly political stuff to get your message across either. But make sure a message is there. I’m not sure you’ll even know what the message should be until the first draft is done, but if your story matters to you and you’re writing the best book you can, one will emerge.

Is love stronger than hate?

How do you stand for equality and human dignity in the face of tribulation?

What impact will disregard for the natural world have on those who depend on its resources?

How can observing the past save us from future disaster?

Pick your banner and wave it high. Write a darn good story, one that has twist and turns and characters the reader gets connected to. Ask tough questions. Offer some answers, if you can.  Tell not just what matters, but why it matters.

Go write.

For Starters

As Julie Andrews once sang, “Let’s start at the very beginning. It’s a very good place to start.”I’m elbow deep in the rewrites for my novel, and the first chapter is making me think about beginnings. I see advice time and again that the opening sentence of a novel needs to hook the reader. The beginning should incite curiosity, instill excitement, or otherwise capture the reader’s imagination.

Great. Makes sense. Let’s see what my opening looks like:

Tobias rolled onto his stomach. Turning his face away from the morning sun streaming through his window, he closed his eyes against the light and tried to recall the dream he’d been having.
Something about a city with walls and hundreds of people milling about. Had there been a castle in the center? And there was that last bit where it seemed to be turning into a nightmare where fires burned in place of some of the houses…
He sat up. He’d lost the rest of it, so he shrugged off the memory as he dressed and let it fade away to the place where the rest of his dreams were forgotten. There was work to do and precious little time to do it all. Summer would be fast approaching and all had to be ready on his family’s farm for the season.

Good grief. And I even rewrote it before the first draft was done. (Do not, I repeat, do not make that rookie mistake. It causes a pileup of issues later on. Leave changes to the rewrites. Just make a note and move on during the first draft.) I know I put more than the first sentence, and I’m sure you can see why. Now let’s explore why, in my head, this fails to hook the reader (no matter what my mom says to the contrary ). Some questions come to mind, like: Who’s Tobias? Why should I care about his dream? Answers aren’t given until the second paragraph, and they’re only answers to the first question, following an info dump about his surroundings and lifestyle. Hardly riveting reading. The second question is part of a mystery that unfolds throughout the rest of the book, only it’s lack luster in presentation here. Although the dream sequence is an important detail, and part of a plot point that drives the narrative, I succeeded in making it impersonal here. While it scares Tobias through visions of violence, it is in no way connected to his present circumstances. Why should the reader care if the character doesn’t give it a second thought?

I’m going to leave my self-assessment where it is for now and offer some examples of excellent opening scenes. By examining what works in books I enjoy, I can come closer to achieving the same effect in my own opening sequence.

I researched some iconic openings for this post, to make sure I got a broad perspective and to refresh my memory for books I borrowed or no longer own. However, one classic came to mind, and actually propelled this idea forward when I first started considering opening lines.

In a hole in the ground there live a hobbit. Not a nasty, dirty, wet hole, filled with the ends of worms and an oozy smell, nor yet a dry, bare, sandy hole with nothing in it to sit down or to eat: it was a hobbit-hole, and that means comfort.
from The Hobbit, Chapter 1: An Unexpected Party, by J.R.R. Tolkien

On top of all the other exciting things going on in these two simple lines, I love the extra little bit of information tucked into the chapter heading (but I’ll leave incidental details like that for a future post). The simplicity of these sentences is deceptive. They’re conversational in tone, yet Tolkien packs in a lot of information. And he prompts a few questions that serve to hook, rather than confuse, the reader. We don’t even get the hobbit’s name until much further down the page, but by then we have a clear picture of what he’s like, which will help us understand why he’s so perturbed by his strange guests later in the chapter. Then, it helps us see the extraordinary change he undergoes throughout his long adventure, prompting him to actions he never would’ve considered possible before the story begins. The first sentence is one step in building the narrative—the first step.

The first sentence makes the reader take notice: What is a hobbit? The second tells us a hobbit is a clean, sensible creature who enjoys the steady predictability of the day to day—for what greater comfort is there for someone who lives in a hole in the ground? Knowing that the story is only begun means we can expect this hobbit will be pulled out of his comfort zone and into excitement in short order, even if Bilbo doesn’t.

Another aspect of this beginning is the speed with which it drops the reader into the story. Tolkien gives us a hole and tells us it’s a home. Then he shows what it’s like by telling us what it’s not like. He goes on in the next paragraphs to fill in the space and give it shape until it’s possible for the reader to develop a clear picture of the home, and the surrounding hill, in the mind’s eye. This also serves to tell us what kind of person lives in such a home. I think it’s beautifully done and operates well within the bounds of the story. I’d consider this a ‘slow build’ opening. Still, this is certainly not the only way to begin a story.

There’s always the initial mystery and disorientation of starting a book, as a reader, before the ‘who,’ ‘where,’ and ‘what’s happening’ are revealed. Sometimes an opening sentence or two are designed to be jarring because the rest of the narrative is meant to leave the ready uneasy.

He’s a prime example of an opening setting the mood rather than setting a scene:

All this happened, more or less. The war parts, anyway, are pretty much true.
from Slaughterhouse-Five, by Kurt Vonnegut

Already there are obvious differences between this passage and the last. Vonnegut wrote his story in first person (for the first chapter, at least), bringing an intimacy to the storytelling. The reader is dropped directly into the narrator’s head, scattered thoughts and all. To top it all off, the narrator claims credibility in a way that actually creates doubt. This serves to prepare the reader for a strange trip. The narrator remains the same (more or less) throughout the rest of the book, but that’s the only consistency. And that’s the point, really. Even the first few lines demonstrate that nothing in the world is guaranteed, (except, maybe, the horrors of war), not the reliability of the narrator, or our fates.

Instead of Tolkien’s approach of easing the reader into the world of the story, Vonnegut unsettles the reader, making him or her question the world as they’re led through it. Each method of opening serves it’s story in a specific way.

A third way to start a story, and one that introduces and intriguing mystery from the first words, is the ‘preview and rewind.’ The story starts with a moment drawn from later in the narrative, a tantalizing glimpse of the conflict to come. The author then moves back in time to take the reader through the events leading up to that point. The cause of the conflict is examined in detail.

Two examples of this come to mind. Each utilizes this method in a distinct way.

On the day of the miracle, Isabel was kneeling at the cliff’s edge, tending the small, newly made driftwood cross. A single fat cloud snailed across the late-April sky, which stretched above the island in a mirror of the ocean below.
from The Light Between Oceans, by M.L. Stedman

Here, the setting and one of the main characters are introduced immediately, however the circumstances are unusual. A miracle is forecast, but not revealed. Isabel is on a remote island. Why else would a cross—a grave marker—be made of driftwood? Why else would the burial be on the edge of the cliff? Further along in the passage, more information is given about the isolated island and its inhabitants. The event, the supposed miracle, is also described, only at that point it seems more like a mystery, or tragedy. The next chapter begins with a scene eight years earlier and thousands of miles away. The narrative unfolds chronologically from there, outlining how the characters got to the event touched on in the first pages. The miraculous nature of that event is clarified—as well as its tragic nature—and the reader is rewarded for paying attention to the details, revealed like clues up front.

In a different iteration of what I’ll call the ‘preview/rewind’ style, the mystery isn’t so much ‘what happened’ as ‘why it happened at all.’ And this time, the narrator is first person the whole way through the story.

The snow in the mountains was melting and Bunny had been dead for several weeks before we came to understand the gravity of our situation. He’d been dead for ten days before they found him, you know. It was one of the biggest manhunts in Vermont history—
from The Secret History, by Donna Tartt

The reader is presented with a body right away, along with a narrator who appears to know what happened. Not much detail is given as to how everyone got there, only that it was a life-haunting event for the as-yet-unknown narrator. There’s the strange sense that he doesn’t feel guilt over the death. Maybe he only feels regret that things turned out the way they did. The thing with first person narrators is that the reader never truly knows what the character is thinking unless he or she tells you. And they don’t have to because that’s how a first person account of things works. It adds to the suspense in this example.

After this brief snapshot of things to come, the story starts back about a year or so prior (although the narrator is only recalling these events from a distance of years in the future). He recounts everything that leads to his involvement in the body found at the bottom of the ravine.

In both cases of ‘preview/rewind,’ the mystery of the story isn’t the event that is the climax of the story. That’s given away up front. Instead, the journey—how the characters got to that point, and what happens after—is the big draw. The small peek at a future portion of the story, a crucial moment, is the hook that draws the reader in. It’s the promise of drama. It’s the possibility of tracing a path through an unlikely sequence of events until the satisfaction of the reveal is reached.

These beginnings can be tricky to pull off, but they’re wonderfully effective when done right. I’ve seen writing advice cautioning against the use of two devices employed by both authors right in their openings: prologues and time jumps. I’d like to explore a little about why each is problematic and how these authors overcame the obstacles to create effective openings using both literary devices.

The case against prologues makes sense, for the most part. It could be tempting to use the prologue as a way to fit in exposition. When handled clumsily it could turn into an info dump rather than a foretaste of the beating heart of the story.

The time jump is a bit more complicated. Most of the arguments caution against flashbacks specifically. Again, the danger is in using them for expositional info dumping. At the start of a novel though, we see a flash forward, but any time jump can become a crutch if used incorrectly. If too much of the future event is revealed, why read the rest of the book? If the event is shrouded in too much mystery it may confuse the reader, especially if on reaching the referenced event as it appears later on, the reader doesn’t recognize it. The time jump also loses power if it’s overused.

In the two examples above, the technique is the reserve of one special place in the narrative, and that place is indicated by also being the prologue, while the rest proceeds chronologically.

So we have four opening scenes and four(ish) methods for making them work. Let’s go back to my personal example and see if my rewrites look better than the first draft. Spoiler alert: most of them don’t.

Tobias crouched in a corner of the barn, next to the stable at the back corner, and watched dust motes fall in the slanting light. He could hear his brother and father talking outside. They couldn’t find him and that suited him just fine.

That one might be worse as far as hooking the reader. It barely gives a feel for Tobias’s personality and only asks ‘Why is he hiding in the barn?’

Moving on…

The kingdom of Dunthyre occupied a portion of the western coast of a larger landmass spreading east and covered by a great inland desert. Klast to the north and Senne to the south provided political borders while…

Blah, blah, blah. I pulled back too far for this beginning. Borders can be explained later. That’s why fantasy novels come with maps, amiright? A little further down, I wrote ‘Tobias neither knew nor cared about any of those things,’ and neither will the reader.

Egads! It’s getting worse, and we’re not done yet.

No magic existed in Dunthyre for the last age. The kingdom occupied a portion of the western coast of a continent that spread east. A great desert dominated the inland…

More of the same. But the addition of that first sentence means I’m getting somewhere. It reveals something about one of the issues at the heart of the novel.

And so we reach the part I labeled ‘And Now: One More Time, With Feeling!’

Magic, the wild kind that comes at great cost to the user, existed in legend only. Tobias knew the legends, he devoured the stories since he could ask to hear them repeated. He believed the magic of the legends resided in the fictional ancient past of myth. It served as an element of entertainment, nothing more. Given his convictions, Tobias refused to believe his own eyes.

This is where all those false starts finally came together. I’m much happier with this version. It could stand some polishing, but it doesn’t need a total overhaul anymore. Now that these are all together, I can examine the issues I had to work through to come to the last try.

The first example, from way at the top of this post, is excusable since I had only a vague idea of the focus and theme of the whole thing. (We’ll explore theme in a later post.) Once I finished the entire first draft of the novel, I had a much better idea of where I wanted the story to go, and so I had a better idea of how and where to start.

Being a fantasy novel, I took a cue from The Hobbit for my opening sequence. I use the first sentence to make a blanket statement about the state of magic in the world of the novel. The rest of the paragraph explores the protagonist’s relationship to, and attitudes about, magic in his world. It also introduces the protagonist, Tobias, to the reader.

There are almost as many ways of opening a novel as there are novels, and not every way will resonate with the reader. But the writer can take some things into consideration to help craft the best opening for their particular novel.

Here’s my unofficial questionnaire I used as I reviewed my rough draft and prepared to revise the opening:

  1. Now that I know where the story ends, what is the logical beginning point?
  2. How should I introduce my main character/s, i.e. gradually, or all at once? Point of view (first or third person narrator) can help determine this.
  3. Is there a driving plot point or character motivation that kicks off the story? If so, should it be addressed immediately?
  4. Dramatic tension or full throttle action? Pick a flavor.

Hopefully this has given you some encouragement and direction as you get to your own revisions and first line rewrites. I actually enjoyed mapping the evolution of my first lines. And I thought it would be embarrassing.

Good luck and get writing!